The Reframing of Realism: Galdós & the Discourses of the

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This was formalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23. The filth, viole nce, starvation, disease, and overall misery of Europe made life a pretty cheap commodity, which is made evident by some telling statistics.� During the 1600s, the life expectancy of a male in Europe’s ruling families was 28 years. [26] � As previously noted, that first Portuguese voyage to India had about a 25% survival rate, and the risk was so high on that voyage that criminals were forced into being crewmembers.� A 75% mortality rate was a bit high, but during the next two centuries, Portugal launched about 15,000 men per year (and a few women) on its trade route.� The average mortality rate for the two-year voyage to Asia and back was about 25%. [27] � A death rate of a third of the passengers and crew was typical.� It is difficult to imagine anybody loading up ships today, to distant lands, with that projected survival rate.� As late as 1762, ten ships of the Dutch East India Company lost more than 1,000 people, about 45% of those aboard, just sailing from the Netherlands to the Cape of Good Hope.� Scurvy was the biggest killer on the high seas, but was far from the only one.� Living on a ship of the day challenged even the European tolerance for squalor.� Not surprisingly, mutiny was a constant risk, and draconian methods were used to keep the crews in line.� In an early English attempt at colonization, at Roanoke, the colony simply disappeared.� The next attempt, at Jamestown, was only sustained by the continual influx of colonists.� During the first generation of the English invasion, nearly a third of the invaders died in the first year.� In 1624, of about 7,000 colonists who arrived in Jamestown since 1607, only 1,200 still survived.

Pages: 255

Publisher: Duke University Press Books (June 14, 1993)

ISBN: 0822313677

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